The Plain Dealer had two good articles on global warming tradeoffs in steel making. The URL listed here is the shorter article. Basically, the electric arc furnaces create less greenhouse gasses, but even they aren’t perfect, because the vast quantities of electricity they use isn’t clean yet either.
The longer, more detailed article is here.
There are two basic ways to make steel in this country. One is from scratch. The other is by recycling.
And as you might expect, the scale is now balanced toward recycling.
Slightly less than 60 percent of raw steel production in the United States is generated in electric arc furnaces, which melt steel scrap to produce new product.